Jersey has a special relationship with the European Union (EU). In contemporary music, Guru Josh was most notable for his internationally successful debut hit Infinity and its re-releases, reaching number one in numerous European countries. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Its owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Odeon closed its doors in late 2008. Two professional golfers from Jersey have won the Open Championship seven times between them; Harry Vardon won six times and Ted Ray won once. Compiled from the Society's Records, by H.G. GETTY. There is free movement of goods and trade between the island and Member States. In the countryside, Methodism found its traditional stronghold. The Income Tax Law of 1928 introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English. The island is divided into twelve parishes, the largest of which is St Ouen and the smallest of which is St Clement. Income tax has been levied at a flat rate of 20% set by the occupying Germans during the Second World War. [40] Jersey has one of the lowest voter turnouts internationally, with just 33% of the electorate voting in 2005, putting it well below the 77% European average for that year.[41]. The UK has confirmed that the Crown dependencies position will be argued in the Brexit negotiations. It also provides teaching for students enrolled on the University of London LLB degree programme, via the International Programmes. Jersey's external relations minister says he is "evaluating possibilities" in case the United Kingdom votes to leave the EU after the next general election. The largest settlement is the town of St Helier, which also plays host to the island's seat of government. The islands took their distinct shape after years of being exposed to glaciations and Great Britain, and Ireland became the largest by size. without change to existing international law. Although GST is at 5%, shopping in Jersey is still far more expensive than in the UK. The tax laws of the islands are among the best in the world for business because no VAT tax is charged. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884. [102] Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué[103] (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival),[104] the Battle of Britain air display, Jersey Live Music Festival, Branchage Film Festival, food festivals, and parish events. Jersey's unicameral legislature is the States Assembly. [21][22], The Channel Islands are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as the following: Sarnia, Caesarea, Barsa, Silia and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified specifically because none corresponds directly to the present names. The Odeon Cinema was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. Jersey and Guernsey jointly opened an office in Brussels in 2010 to promote their common interests with European Union institutions.[65]. However, Jersey is part of the European Union Customs Union, meaning that there is free movement of goods and trade between the island and the EU. The formal relationship is set out in Protocol 3 of the UK's 1972 Accession Treaty and confirmed in what is now Article 355 (5) (c) of the EU Treaties. "The Crown" is defined by the Law Officers of the Crown as the "Crown in right of Jersey". In July 2009, a Channel Islands Tunnel was proposed to connect Jersey with Lower Normandy. [27] The ending -ey denotes an island[28][29] (as in Guernsey or Surtsey). Jersey history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years. Monaco and the Vatican, while not members of the EU, are part of the EU customs territory through agreements with France and Italy. Shepard, Secretary. Jersey is part of the Common Travel Area, along with the other Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, Republic of Ireland and the UK. Jersey is neither a Member State of the European Union, nor does it have a European Union Association Agreement. Among his promises was giving the islands the right to govern themselves. The Jersey Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. In sporting events in which Jersey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation. The island was placed into a lockdown, with significant restrictions on freedom of movement for residents on 30 March. The Centenier is the only officer authorised to charge and bail offenders. The islands took their distinct shape after years of being exposed to glaciations and Great Britain, and Ireland became the largest by size. Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). [127], Trees generally considered native are the alder (Alnus glutinosa), silver birch (Betula pendula), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), aspen (Populus tremula), wild cherry (Prunus avium), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), holm oak (Quercus ilex), oak (Quercus robur), sallow (Salix cinerea), elder (Sambucus nigra), elm (Ulmus spp.) The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The European Commission has confirmed that the Code is not a legal instrument, and therefore is not legally binding, only becoming of limited "political" authority once a unanimous report has been adopted by the Group at the end of the Presidency concerned. All border on the sea. [30], Jersey was part of Neustria with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. In 2017, 101 water pollution incidents were reported, an increase of 5% on 2016. Its official name was the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community. The common customs tariff, levies and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between the island and non-Member States. It measures roughly 9 miles from west to east and 5 miles north to south, which gives it the affectionate name among locals of "nine-by-five". The island's patron saint is Saint Helier.[105]. People travelling to Jersey from any other European Union (EU) and Eu… Frederick Tennyson and Gerald Durrell were among authors who made Jersey their home. The largest settlement on Jersey is in fact made up of parts of various parishes and is often referred to as "town" by islanders. However, the island's close proximity (135 km south) and its close association with the financial sector of the U.K. has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, with several mainline publications (e.g., The Wall Street Journal) labelling the island a tax haven. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north–south. The British Isles were formed due to the movement and collision of tectonic plates. Statement by the Chief Minister regarding the appointment of a new Chief Executive to the Council of Ministers. ", "States of Jersey (Miscellaneous Provisions) Law 2011", "Council of Ministers adopts 'Government of Jersey' identity", "Public Hearing – Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers", "Study Guide on Jersey Legal System and Constitutional Law", "Meet our new foreign minister « This Is Jersey", "TAX INFORMATION EXCHANGE AGREEMENTS (TIEAs)", Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, "Status of Channel Islands in the European Union", "Channel Islands appoint representative in Brussels", "Second Interim Report of the Constitution Review Group", "Sovereignty or dependency on agenda at conference", "Independence 'may be only option if Brexit deal is bad, https://www.gov.je/Government/JerseyInFigures/Environment/Pages/SizeLandCover.aspx, "States of Jersey - Revised 2011 Island Plan", "Jersey Census 2001: Chapter 2: Population Characteristics", "CROPP contracts brings profitability to Ohio grass-based, organic dairies", "Harmful tax competition – Taxation and Customs Union – European Commission", "EUR-Lex - 52019XG0326(01) - EN - EUR-Lex", https://www.gov.je/Government/FreedomOfInformation/pages/foi.aspx?ReportID=1395, "Lords Hansard text for 6 Dec 2001 (211206-28)", "Jersey approve Bitcoin fund launch on island", "Visas / entry clearances / work permit issue", "gov.je – Migration Monitoring and Regulation", "Answer by Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Home Office, (Lord West of Spithead) in UK House of Lords 18 January 2010", "gov.je – Passports – I have an observation in my passport that says – the holder is not entitled to benefit from EC Provisions relating to employment and settlement – what does that mean? West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). EU applicant Turkey, former EU member state the United Kingdom and two bordering micro-states — Andorra and San Marino — are in a Customs Union with the EU. That restriction on the exercise of certain freedoms did not apply to all Community or Union rights. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation of the 16th century. [99] Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom for five years, are not subject to this restriction. The government of Jersey has the powers to issue driving licenses, enforce tax policies and other laws enshrined in the Jersey constitution. Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. [75], The climate is an oceanic climate with mild winters and mild to warm summers.[76]. [51] Since 13 March 2017, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor has been Sir Stephen Dalton. [86] Jersey does not feature, however, in the March 2019 revised EU list of non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes. About 24% of the island is built-up. During the transition period, the UK has left the EU in law (so it is no longer an EU Member State) but the same rights and obligations apply to the UK as if it were still a member of the EU. [45] Some government functions are carried out in the island's 12 parishes. [21] Jèrriais nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There are twelve parishes found in Jersey. Jersey Water supply water from two water treatment works, around 7.2 billion litres in 2018. In simple terms, the Island is treated as part of the European Union for the purposes of free trade in goods, but otherwise is not a part of the EU. [64], However, it is not yet clear whether the citizenship rights in articles 18 and 21 TFEU are partly available to them as British Citizens, given the limited restriction of their rights under article 2 of the Protocol. [132], Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive species that threatens Jersey's biodiversity. Writers born in Jersey include Elinor Glyn, John Lemprière, Philippe Le Sueur Mourant, Robert Pipon Marett and Augustus Asplet Le Gros. [61], British citizens who have only a connection to Jersey, and not with the United Kingdom or another member state of the European Union, were not considered by the Jersey States to be European Union citizens. The Treaty of Rome . Another estimated 515,700 m3 of water is abstracted for domestic purposes from private sources (around 9% of the population). [14] The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey is not subject to European Union fiscal legislation, and its "Zero/Ten" corporate tax legislation will be compliant with the Code of Conduct in business taxation as from the removal of the deemed distribution and attribution anti-avoidance legislation as of 31 December 2011[update], which was apparently criticised by certain unnamed members of the Code of Conduct Group, a subsidiary body of ECOFIN. The Institute of Law is Jersey's law school, providing a course for students seeking to qualify as Jersey advocates and solicitors. A similar office, the Maison de Normandie in St. Helier, represents the Conseil général of Manche and the Regional Council of Normandy. Jersey Cattle, 1954, The Channel Islands under Tudor Government, A.J. ITV Channel Television is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey but with its headquarters in Jersey. Balleine, The Archaeology of the Channel Islands. Jersey was occupied by Germany from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945, when Germany surrendered. The island is characetrised by a number of valleys which generally run north-to-south, such as Waterworks Valley, Grands Vaux, Mont les Vaux, although a few run in other directions, such as Le Mourier Valley. For other uses, see, Saint Helier is the de facto capital of Jersey, being the seat of the island's government, however Government House, the official royal residence of the island, is located in. [56][57], Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been signed directly by the island with several countries.[58]. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham, Kent on 10 August 2003. [142] Jersey imports a large amount of its power. The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists. [124], The red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax became extinct in Jersey around 1900, when changes in farming and grazing practices led to a decline in the coastal slope habitat required by this species. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Jersey is the home of the Jersey Zoo (formerly known as the Durrell Wildlife Park[122]) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper and author Gerald Durrell. The Parish Assembly is the decision-making body of local government in each parish; it consists of all entitled voters of the parish. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint Helier, the island's only town. Jersey has two public indoor swimming pools. In 1909, T. J. 52% of the land area is dedicated to cultivation and around 18% is the natural environment.[71]. Eric J. Boston. 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